BOHEMIA INSTITUT Jazykové kurzy všech typů Studium v zahraničí Slovníček akademických pojmů
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Slovníček mezinár. akademických pojmů

  • A.A./ A.S.- (US) Associate of Arts / Associate of Science Degree: A two-year degree earned at a community college during the student’s freshman and sophomore years. These two years have the same value as two years at a four-year College or University.
  • Academic Year(US) This is time from which a school is in session usually from the beginning of September until June of the next year and it consists of 2 semesters or 3 quarters.
  • Advanced Diploma– (AUSTRALIA) Students acquire an advanced diploma after an additional six to nine months of study after receiving the first diploma. TAFE institutions offer diplomas and advanced diplomas which can be credited to a University degree program.
  • Anerkennungsbescheid– (GERMANY) This is a certificate which acknowledges the record of students achievements in Germany.
  • AP (The Advanced Placement Program)– AP courses give average high school students the opportunity to do college-level work, enabling them to earn credit and/or advanced placement when they enter a College or University.
  • Attendance– (US) This is how often a student goes to the class that he/she is registered in. Many American University/college courses have a mandatory attendance policy.
  • Au-Pair- A program involving a combined time of study, (usually a second language) and working in the home of the host. Participants involved travel abroad and work in the home, usually looking after children, whilst attending part time language studies. It provides the student with an excellent language and cultural opportunity.
  • Avis d'équivalence d'études– (CANADA) This education credential evaluation is usually needed for students interested in studying in Quebec or undergoing vocational training.
  • B.A. / B.S.– Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science. These are four-year degrees earned at an academic College or University.
  • B.F.A.– Bachelor of Fine Arts. This 4 year program credits students with their degree in painting, drawing, illustration, interior design and other related fine arts fields.
  • Bachelor's Degree– Students usually receive this degree in their chosen field after four years of full time study at a College or University.
  • Boarding schools- These are most commonly private schools offering schooling from primary to adult levels. They can be either coed or all girl/boy schools. Students tend to live on site.
  • Camps- These are usually short term summer programs available for all ages from primary to adult in all possible fields of interest.
  • CAQ– (CANADA) This is the authorization to study or work for a period of time in Québec.
  • Certificate– This is an official document stating that a student completed a required group of courses and is certified to have a certain level of proficiency or they have completed a certain number of hours of study. Certificates require less time than a degree. (One or two year programs)
  • College- (US) This term is used for both 2 year colleges as well as 4 year colleges. A two year college offers upon completion an Associates degree, where as the four year programs upon completion will result in a bachelor degree in the chosen field of study.
  • Community College– (US) Community colleges are similar to Junior Colleges. They serve the local community of a city. Students often only go there for two years and transfer to a University. Tuition is often inexpensive and the campuses are generally smaller than Junior Colleges. Many of these students still live at home or are full time employed and attend evening classes. Many Community colleges offer intensive English as a Second Language programs. Most governments recognize degrees from Community and two year colleges.
  • Conditional Admittance– (US/CANADA) Acceptance into a college or university degree program, dependent upon meeting academic and English language requirements.
  • Core curriculum– These are the general courses required by the university for all students to take, usually in the first and second year. It is often also called 'general education or general studies'.
  • Credit course– This is a course taken from which the final grade will be included in the students' GPA.
  • Credit System- (US) Courses are measured by credits or credit hours. Students must complete a minimum number of credits to receive a bachelor s degree.
  • Credits– For each course taken a certain amount of credits are given. Some courses have a higher amount of credits than others. The number of credits given within a class usually corresponds with the hours spent in the class. In order to graduate a student must complete a certain amount of credits from a College/University.
  • Cross-Cultural Seminars- These include students attending seminars, or short term courses for the purpose of foreign cultural learning.
  • Culinary Arts- This field of study is usually a two year program that teaches the art of cooking and working as a professional chef in the kitchen.
  • D.D.S.– Doctor of Dental Science.
  • Diploma- (US/CANADA) This is the official institutional document stating that a student has completed a given amount of courses within a program. This is used for graduation from a high school, technical school, college or university.
  • Distance Learning- Continuing education or professional development through part time studies, involving home study, and aid through tutorial support materials. Sometimes referred to as correspondence courses. All levels and skills from a wide variety of programs are available in many countries.
  • Doctorate– (US/CANADA) Students must complete a minimum of three years of full time studies after receiving a Masters degree, or in some cases a Honors Bachelor degree.
  • Double major– When a student chooses to study two academic subjects and in turn they receive two degrees at the end of their studies.
  • Educational Exchange- This is a program involving exchanging of students for a period of time, most likely between schools in various countries.
  • EFL (English as a foreign language)– EFL is an English language course designed for non-native speakers.
  • Elective– This is a course that a student chooses to take to his/her own liking. It does not have to be a course from their own major department. The student can choose almost any course from any department in the school. Universities and colleges require students to take a certain amount of elective courses.
  • ESL- English as a Second Language– English as a Second Language, as in an ESL School for international students. These programs are usually offered in conjunction with full time studies, for international students already attending a University or College. On average less than 15 hours per week is allotted to this course.
  • ESP - English for Specific Purposes– These programs are often only offered at a Graduate level in which students develop written, communicative, and practical skills towards a professional field of work in the United States. An example of an ESP course would be Business English.
  • F-1– (US) This is the visa issued by the US government allowing a student to study full-time at an academic institution or language program. This requires presentation of an I-20 from an American school, but possession of an I-20 does not guarantee that a student visa will be approved.
  • F-2– (US) Visa for the spouse (husband or wife) or child of the F-1 student.
  • Faculty advisor– This is a faculty member from a students major department who helps he/she plan out which classes to take.
  • Faculty– This includes all of the professors & teachers at a particular College or University.
  • Final– At the end of each semester/quarter, students usually have to take a 'final test' for each class that they took . The test usually consists of everything that was taught during that semester/quarter or everything taught after the midterm in that class. The results of these tests weigh heavily on the students final grade of the class.
  • Form I-94– (US) Arrival/departure record. Every non US citizen, with a few exceptions, entering the United States is temporarily issued a Form I-94. When the alien enters the U.S., the Arrival Record portion of the form is detached and kept by INS. The Departure Record is usually stapled (attached) into the alien’s passport on the same page on which the visa has been stamped. The I-94 shows the alien’s immigration classification and endorsements made by immigration officers to indicate the place and date of the alien’s admission to the U.S. and the initial period of stay authorized.
  • Freshman– (US) A male or female student in his/her first year of study at a high school, college or university.
  • GPA– Grade Point Average. At the end of each term professors/instructors of the courses that the student takes will determine their grade. Usually the student is given a letter grade that has a numerical equivalent. This grade along with the grades from other classes, average into your GPA.
  • Grade scale– (US/CANADA)
A     (excellent) 4.0
B     (good) 3.0
C     (average) 2.0
D     (passing) 1.0
F     (failing) 0.0
*If a student receives an F in a course, he/she is not awarded any credits for that course. Therefore if the student wishes to receive credits from that particular course, he/she must take the class again and earn a passing grade.
  • Grade– This is a letter or number given to a student at the completion of a course, test or paper in order to indicated the level of proficiency demonstrated by that student.
  • Graduate- A student is a graduate once he/she is awarded a degree from a College or University. If the student wishes to continue studies for a masters degree he/she is then called a graduate student.
  • High School Diploma– (US/CANADA) This is a document certifying completion of high school. Graduating students are usually 17 or 18 years old.
  • Higher Education- This is a general term used to describe education taken after the completion of the twelfth grade in senior high school. Studying at a College or University is considered to be higher education learning.
  • Home-stay- Living with a host family, usually with ones' own private room and either shared or private bathroom while attending a foreign school.
  • Honor roll– When a student has a 3.5 or higher grade point average.
  • Hotel Management- Studies of hotel operation and management. This is a combination of subject knowledge, practical experience and application of learned material in the Hotel Trade. Schooling involves ‘in-service’ training/practicum.
  • I-20– (US) After you have been accepted into an institution, that institution will send you all the information you need to apply for a student visa. The document sent by a US academic institution or language school is the I-20. This is not a visa but only a visa application. The I-20 will be used together with your passport, visa and other documentation to enable you to enter the United States and stay for the length of your studies .
  • IEP - Intensive English Program– Intensive English Programs are full time courses that offer a minimum of 15 hours of intensive training in English classes per week. Course lengths have a duration of several weeks to several months. Learning English through an IEP is a full time commitment that students take prior to pursuit of higher education. Some IEP's are orientated towards specific fields of study such as Law, Sciences, Education, etc.
  • IMM 1294 Application form– (CANADA) Application form for Student Authorization to study in Canada. International Students may study up to three months in Canada without this form, but must satisfy the 'visitor' requirements.
  • Independent study– This is when a student develops a research for himself/herself for class credit. The student usually does not have to attend any formal classes for these credits. General procedure is for the student to pick a professor from his/her department, develop a project and work on that project in conjunction with the advisement of the professor. Students often choose to complete their senior thesis as an independent study.
  • Internship– This is when a student works at a company outside of the university that deals with their major for course credit. Many universities and colleges require students to take one semester of an internship.
  • J.D.– Doctor of Law.
  • Junior- A male or female student in his/her third year of study at a high school, College or University.
  • Klausur– (GERMANY) A written paper either taken at the University itself or taken home to be completed.
  • Liberal arts– This can be a major of a student and it’s focus is on general knowledge along with the development of intellectual abilities. Students with this major often become teachers.
  • M.A. / M.S. / M.Sc. (Master's Degree)– Master’s of Arts / Master’s of Science:
  • M.B.A.– Master’s in Business Administration.
  • M.D.– Doctor of Medicine: A four- to eight-year degree earned at a medical school, usually at a major University. Graduates have the right to use the title "Dr." in front of their last name.
  • M-1– (US) Visa for student in vocational or other recognized non-academic institution.
  • Major- The academic subject that a student chooses to study for his/her degree. After a student has chosen his/her major, specific courses must be taken in order for the student to receive his/her degree for that particular major. These courses are specialized towards the chosen field of study and help the student to master the skills and details needed in the profession being studied.
  • Masters Degree– Students receive this after two years of study following the Bachelors degree. Students can chose between two routes to complete their Masters degree, either through thesis and course work, or thesis and research.
  • Matriculate- (US) Officially enroll (register) in a college or university.
  • MBA Programs- These are programs offered at colleges or universities for graduate business studies.
  • Minor– After a student chooses a major, he/she can then choose a minor. This is also a subject of emphasis for a student but it is not required to take as many classes within that subject as it would be with a major.
  • No credit course– A course taken from a student which does not effect their GPA. No credits are received for that course.
  • Pass-fail course– A course taken from which a student receives credit from the basis of either passing or failing. If the student passes they receive credit and if they don't pass, they receive no credit. No individual grade is given, only a pass or fail mark. This mark does not effect the students GPA.
  • Performing Arts- The art of movement either through dance or theater. It is beneficial for the performing arts student to experience an exchange/study abroad program to be exposed to other cultures.
  • Postgraduate Student- A term given to students who have finished their graduate studies and choose to continue studies in order to receive their Ph.D.
  • Postgraduate Certificate– Students acquire this after one semester of full time study after being awarded a Bachelor degree.
  • Postgraduate Diploma– Students are awarded this after two semesters of full time following a Bachelor Degree. These are awards can also assist the students admission application for a Masters or Doctorate programs.
  • Primary, Grade or Elementary school- (US/CANADA) Children usually start primary school at the age of 5 or 6 from which they enter kindergarten and continue at that school for 6 more years. After these 7 years they then enter Junior High.
  • Private University or College– The schools in this category are not operated by any branch of government. They are privately owned. Tuition at these institutions is usually more expensive and the campuses are often smaller in size.
  • Professor– Usually a title given to a teacher at a four-year college or a university. The title is used for both male and female teachers.
  • Prüfungsamt– (GERMANY) Testing Center
  • Referat– (GERMANY) Oral presentation of a written paper either to the teacher or in front of the class.
  • Schein– (GERMANY) Written credit for completion of a course.
  • Scholarship– This is money rewarded to a student to help pay for his/her tuition. Students must apply to various programs or organizations in order to receive this.
  • Secondary School- (US) After attending Primary school children go to Secondary school, which has a duration of 6 years. There is "Junior high school" which is a two year program, and "Senior high school/high school" which consists of four years. The twelve years of combined primary and secondary schools are usually referred to as the first through the twelfth "grades".
  • Sections– When there are courses with a large number of students, students often meet in small groups to review and discuss lecture topics.
  • Semester/quarter- (US) Depending on the College/University, this is a block of time usually lasting from 3-5 months. One academic year consists of 2 semesters or 3 quarters. Within each semester/quarter, students usually take 3 to 5 different classes. At the end of each semester/quarter they take their final and for the next semester/quarter they take new classes.
  • Senior- (US) A male or female student in his/her fourth (and last) year of study at a high school, college or fourth year of undergraduate study at a university.
  • Senior thesis– (US) Before graduating from a four year university or college a student must complete a final project from their area of studies. This is often a research paper, project or presentation and is often completed during the senior year.
  • Sophomore- (US) A male or female student in his/her second year of study at a high school, College or University.
  • State University– (US) A state school is operated and supported by local government of that State in which it is found. Each State contains at least one Government operated university.
  • Student Authorization/Visa- Official, usually government documentation, that states that a student has been allowed to stay and study in a foreign country. A time restriction is usually set for length of stay allowances.
  • Studienabschlußprüfungen– (GERMANY) Final Examination. This usually consists of the completion of many academic papers, as well as written and oral examinations.
  • Studienkolleg– (GERMANY) Institutions offering preparatory courses for University entrance exams.
  • Summer school- This is a time between the regular academic year. Universities/colleges usually offer courses during this time which are more condensed because they have to be finished in a shorter amount of days. Therefore students usually only take 1 to 2 classes during this time.
  • Teachers aide– Usually at large Universities/Colleges professors use graduate students to aid them in teaching the course. These people are usually in the process of becoming professors themselves, but must fulfill some hours of student teaching and courses, before they can be awarded this title.
  • TEFL- Teaching English as a Foreign Language
  • TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language)– A teacher with this qualification is involved with teaching of English to non-native speakers in English speaking countries.
  • Transcript– (US/CANADA) Official list of courses studied with grades and units earned. Required for entrance into a College or University. Generally not required for study in an English language program.
  • Trimester- Three parts that an academic year is broken up to in some Colleges and Universities.
  • Tuition- The fees paid to a College or University for instruction. There are many varying fees for different educational institutions.
  • Two Year College- (US) This is also referred to as a "Junior College or Community College". Two year Colleges are either supported by the state or run privately. They admit high school graduates and provide upon completion an Associate's Degree. Most graduates then transfer to a four year College or University. Usually within the duration of two to three years at the four year institution they complete their Undergraduate education and receive a Bachelor's Degree.
  • Two Year programs- The learning of a ‘trade’ in a specific field of a chosen profession.
  • Übungen– (GERMANY) Exercises. Usually in a language course this is done through verbal communication between student and teacher, and student to student.
  • Underclassman- (US) A title given to students during their first 2-3 years at a College or University.
  • Undergraduate- (US) This is a title given to students at any College or University while they are studying to receive their bachelor degree.
  • University- Generally a four year institution offering bachelor of arts degrees and bachelor of science degrees. Most Universities also offer studies after the completion of a bachelors degree. Upon completion of graduate studies the student receives a masters degree.
  • Upperclassman- (US) A term given to students during their last 2-3 years of College or University studies.
  • Vocational Certificate/Diploma- Trade or professional diploma programs involve usually two (or more) years of training in a specific field offered at a Community College, Junior College or Vocational school.
  • Vorlesungen– (GERMANY) Lecture, when the teacher speaks/teaches to the student in class/lecture hall.

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